Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Market Research Report 2021

  • Published Date : 09-08-2021
  • Pages : 91
  • Report Id : 20900
  • Categories : Automotive

This report studies the global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) market status and forecast, categorizes the global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) market size (value & volume) by manufacturers, type, application, and region. This report focuses on the top manufacturers in North America, Europe, China, Japan, South Korea, India and other regions (Southeast Asia, Central & South America, and Middle East & Africa)

The global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) market is valued at million US$ in 2020 and will reach million US$ by the end of 2027, growing at a CAGR of during 2021-2027.

The major manufacturers covered in this report
Continental
Autoliv
Delphi
Takata
Toyoda Gosei
ZF TRW
Key Safety
Ashimori Industry
Nihon Plast
S&T Motiv
Hyundai Mobis
Tokai Rika
Toyota Boshoku
Changchun Faway

Geographically, this report studies the top producers and consumers, focuses on product capacity, production, value, consumption, market share and growth opportunity in these key regions, covering
United States
EU
China
Japan
South Korea
India

We can also provide the customized separate regional or country-level reports, for the following regions:
North America
United States
Canada
Mexico
Asia-Pacific
China
India
Japan
South Korea
Australia
Indonesia
Singapore
Rest of Asia-Pacific
Europe
Germany
France
UK
Italy
Spain
Russia
Rest of Europe
Central & South America
Brazil
Argentina
Rest of South America
Middle East & Africa
Saudi Arabia
Turkey
Rest of Middle East & Africa

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
Safety Belt
Airbag
On the basis of the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, consumption (sales), market share and growth rate for each application, including
Passenger Car
Commercial Vehicle

The study objectives of this report are:
To analyze and study the global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) capacity, production, value, consumption, status (2016-2020) and forecast (2021-2027);
Focuses on the key Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) manufacturers, to study the capacity, production, value, market share and development plans in future.
Focuses on the global key manufacturers, to define, describe and analyze the market competition landscape, SWOT analysis.
To define, describe and forecast the market by type, application and region.
To analyze the global and key regions market potential and advantage, opportunity and challenge, restraints and risks.
To identify significant trends and factors driving or inhibiting the market growth.
To analyze the opportunities in the market for stakeholders by identifying the high growth segments.
To strategically analyze each submarket with respect to individual growth trend and their contribution to the market
To analyze competitive developments such as expansions, agreements, new product launches, and acquisitions in the market
To strategically profile the key players and comprehensively analyze their growth strategies.

In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) are as follows:
History Year: 2016-2020
Base Year: 2020
Estimated Year: 2021
Forecast Year 2021 to 2027

For the data information by region, company, type and application, 2020 is considered as the base year. Whenever data information was unavailable for the base year, the prior year has been considered.

Key Stakeholders
Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Manufacturers
Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Distributors/Traders/Wholesalers
Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Subcomponent Manufacturers
Industry Association
Downstream Vendors

Available Customizations
With the given market data, offers customizations according to the company's specific needs. The following customization options are available for the report:
Regional and country-level analysis of the Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) market, by end-use.
Detailed analysis and profiles of additional market players.
End of Summary


Table of Contents

Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Market Research Report 2021
1 Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Market Overview
1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS)
1.2 Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Segment by Type (Product Category)
1.2.1 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production and CAGR (%) Comparison by Type (Product Category)(2016-2027)
1.2.2 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production Market Share by Type (Product Category) in 2017
1.2.3 Safety Belt
1.2.4 Airbag
1.3 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Segment by Application
1.3.1 Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Consumption (Sales) Comparison by Application (2016-2027)
1.3.2 Passenger Car
1.3.3 Commercial Vehicle
1.4 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Market by Region (2016-2027)
1.4.1 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Market Size (Value) and CAGR (%) Comparison by Region (2016-2027)
1.4.2 United States Status and Prospect (2016-2027)
1.4.3 EU Status and Prospect (2016-2027)
1.4.4 China Status and Prospect (2016-2027)
1.4.5 Japan Status and Prospect (2016-2027)
1.4.6 South Korea Status and Prospect (2016-2027)
1.4.7 India Status and Prospect (2016-2027)
1.5 Global Market Size (Value) of Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) (2016-2027)
1.5.1 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Revenue Status and Outlook (2016-2027)
1.5.2 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity, Production Status and Outlook (2016-2027)

2 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Market Competition by Manufacturers
2.1 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity, Production and Share by Manufacturers (2016-2021)
2.1.1 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity and Share by Manufacturers (2016-2021)
2.1.2 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production and Share by Manufacturers (2016-2021)
2.2 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Revenue and Share by Manufacturers (2016-2021)
2.3 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Average Price by Manufacturers (2016-2021)
2.4 Manufacturers Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Manufacturing Base Distribution, Sales Area and Product Type
2.5 Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Market Competitive Situation and Trends
2.5.1 Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Market Concentration Rate
2.5.2 Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Market Share of Top 3 and Top 5 Manufacturers
2.5.3 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion

3 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity, Production, Revenue (Value) by Region (2016-2021)
3.1 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity and Market Share by Region (2016-2021)
3.2 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production and Market Share by Region (2016-2021)
3.3 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Revenue (Value) and Market Share by Region (2016-2021)
3.4 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
3.5 United States Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
3.6 EU Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
3.7 China Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
3.8 Japan Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
3.9 South Korea Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
3.10 India Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

4 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Region (2016-2021)
4.1 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Consumption by Region (2016-2021)
4.2 United States Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production, Consumption, Export, Import (2016-2021)
4.3 EU Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production, Consumption, Export, Import (2016-2021)
4.4 China Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production, Consumption, Export, Import (2016-2021)
4.5 Japan Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production, Consumption, Export, Import (2016-2021)
4.6 South Korea Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production, Consumption, Export, Import (2016-2021)
4.7 India Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production, Consumption, Export, Import (2016-2021)

5 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type
5.1 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production and Market Share by Type (2016-2021)
5.2 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Revenue and Market Share by Type (2016-2021)
5.3 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Price by Type (2016-2021)
5.4 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production Growth by Type (2016-2021)

6 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Market Analysis by Application
6.1 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Consumption and Market Share by Application (2016-2021)
6.2 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Consumption Growth Rate by Application (2016-2021)
6.3 Market Drivers and Opportunities
6.3.1 Potential Applications
6.3.2 Emerging Markets/Countries

7 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Manufacturers Profiles/Analysis
7.1 Continental
7.1.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
7.1.2 Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Product Category, Application and Specification
7.1.2.1 Product A
7.1.2.2 Product B
7.1.3 Continental Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
7.1.4 Main Business/Business Overview
7.2 Autoliv
7.2.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
7.2.2 Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Product Category, Application and Specification
7.2.2.1 Product A
7.2.2.2 Product B
7.2.3 Autoliv Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
7.2.4 Main Business/Business Overview
7.3 Delphi
7.3.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
7.3.2 Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Product Category, Application and Specification
7.3.2.1 Product A
7.3.2.2 Product B
7.3.3 Delphi Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
7.3.4 Main Business/Business Overview
7.4 Takata
7.4.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
7.4.2 Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Product Category, Application and Specification
7.4.2.1 Product A
7.4.2.2 Product B
7.4.3 Takata Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
7.4.4 Main Business/Business Overview
7.5 Toyoda Gosei
7.5.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
7.5.2 Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Product Category, Application and Specification
7.5.2.1 Product A
7.5.2.2 Product B
7.5.3 Toyoda Gosei Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015-2021)
7.5.4 Main Business/Business Overview
7.6 ZF TRW
7.6.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
7.6.2 Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Product Category, Application and Specification
7.6.2.1 Product A
7.6.2.2 Product B
7.6.3 ZF TRW Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
7.6.4 Main Business/Business Overview
7.7 Key Safety
7.7.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
7.7.2 Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Product Category, Application and Specification
7.7.2.1 Product A
7.7.2.2 Product B
7.7.3 Key Safety Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
7.7.4 Main Business/Business Overview
7.8 Ashimori Industry
7.8.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
7.8.2 Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Product Category, Application and Specification
7.8.2.1 Product A
7.8.2.2 Product B
7.8.3 Ashimori Industry Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
7.8.4 Main Business/Business Overview
7.9 Nihon Plast
7.9.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
7.9.2 Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Product Category, Application and Specification
7.9.2.1 Product A
7.9.2.2 Product B
7.9.3 Nihon Plast Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
7.9.4 Main Business/Business Overview
7.8 S&T Motiv
7.10.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
7.10.2 Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Product Category, Application and Specification
7.10.2.1 Product A
7.10.2.2 Product B
7.10.3 S&T Motiv Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
7.10.4 Main Business/Business Overview
7.11 Hyundai Mobis
7.12 Tokai Rika
7.13 Toyota Boshoku
7.14 Changchun Faway

8 Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Manufacturing Cost Analysis
8.1 Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Key Raw Materials Analysis
8.1.1 Key Raw Materials
8.1.2 Price Trend of Key Raw Materials
8.1.3 Key Suppliers of Raw Materials
8.1.4 Market Concentration Rate of Raw Materials
8.2 Proportion of Manufacturing Cost Structure
8.2.1 Raw Materials
8.2.2 Labor Cost
8.2.3 Manufacturing Expenses
8.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS)

9 Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers
9.1 Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Industrial Chain Analysis
9.2 Upstream Raw Materials Sourcing
9.3 Raw Materials Sources of Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Major Manufacturers in 2017
9.4 Downstream Buyers

10 Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders
10.1 Marketing Channel
10.1.1 Direct Marketing
10.1.2 Indirect Marketing
10.1.3 Marketing Channel Development Trend
10.2 Market Positioning
10.2.1 Pricing Strategy
10.2.2 Brand Strategy
10.2.3 Target Client
10.3 Distributors/Traders List

11 Market Effect Factors Analysis
11.1 Technology Progress/Risk
11.1.1 Substitutes Threat
11.1.2 Technology Progress in Related Industry
11.2 Consumer Needs/Customer Preference Change
11.3 Economic/Political Environmental Change

12 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Market Forecast (2021-2027)
12.1 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity, Production, Revenue Forecast (2021-2027)
12.1.1 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity, Production and Growth Rate Forecast (2021-2027)
12.1.2 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Revenue and Growth Rate Forecast (2021-2027)
12.1.3 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Price and Trend Forecast (2021-2027)
12.2 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production, Consumption , Import and Export Forecast by Region (2021-2027)
12.2.1 United States Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production, Revenue, Consumption, Export and Import Forecast (2021-2027)
12.2.2 EU Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production, Revenue, Consumption, Export and Import Forecast (2021-2027)
12.2.3 China Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production, Revenue, Consumption, Export and Import Forecast (2021-2027)
12.2.4 Japan Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production, Revenue, Consumption, Export and Import Forecast (2021-2027)
12.2.5 South Korea Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production, Revenue, Consumption, Export and Import Forecast (2021-2027)
12.2.6 India Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production, Revenue, Consumption, Export and Import Forecast (2021-2027)
12.3 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production, Revenue and Price Forecast by Type (2021-2027)
12.4 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Consumption Forecast by Application (2021-2027)

13 Research Findings and Conclusion

14 Appendix
14.1 Methodology/Research Approach
14.1.1 Research Programs/Design
14.1.2 Market Size Estimation
14.1.3 Market Breakdown and Data Triangulation
14.2 Data Source
14.2.1 Secondary Sources
14.2.2 Primary Sources
14.3 Disclaimer
List of Tables and Figures

Figure Picture of Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS)
Figure Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production () and CAGR (%) Comparison by Types (Product Category) (2016-2027)
Figure Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production Market Share by Types (Product Category) in 2017
Figure Product Picture of Safety Belt
Table Major Manufacturers of Safety Belt
Figure Product Picture of Airbag
Table Major Manufacturers of Airbag
Figure Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Consumption (K Units) by Applications (2016-2027)
Figure Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Consumption Market Share by Applications in 2017
Figure Passenger Car Examples
Table Key Downstream Customer in Passenger Car
Figure Commercial Vehicle Examples
Table Key Downstream Customer in Commercial Vehicle
Figure Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Market Size (Million USD), Comparison (K Units) and CAGR (%) by Regions (2016-2027)
Figure United States Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2016-2027)
Figure EU Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2016-2027)
Figure China Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2016-2027)
Figure Japan Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2016-2027)
Figure South Korea Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2016-2027)
Figure India Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2016-2027)
Figure Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Revenue (Million USD) Status and Outlook (2016-2027)
Figure Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity, Production (K Units) Status and Outlook (2016-2027)
Figure Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Major Players Product Capacity (K Units) (2016-2021)
Table Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity (K Units) of Key Manufacturers (2016-2021)
Table Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity Market Share of Key Manufacturers (2016-2021)
Figure Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity (K Units) of Key Manufacturers in 2017
Figure Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity (K Units) of Key Manufacturers in 2021
Figure Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Major Players Product Production (K Units) (2016-2021)
Table Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production (K Units) of Key Manufacturers (2016-2021)
Table Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production Share by Manufacturers (2016-2021)
Figure 2017 Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production Share by Manufacturers
Figure 2017 Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production Share by Manufacturers
Figure Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Major Players Product Revenue (Million USD) (2016-2021)
Table Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Revenue (Million USD) by Manufacturers (2016-2021)
Table Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Revenue Share by Manufacturers (2016-2021)
Table 2017 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Revenue Share by Manufacturers
Table 2021 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Revenue Share by Manufacturers
Table Global Market Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Average Price (USD/Unit) of Key Manufacturers (2016-2021)
Figure Global Market Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Average Price (USD/Unit) of Key Manufacturers in 2017
Table Manufacturers Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Manufacturing Base Distribution and Sales Area
Table Manufacturers Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Product Category
Figure Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Market Share of Top 3 Manufacturers
Figure Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Market Share of Top 5 Manufacturers
Table Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity (K Units) by Region (2016-2021)
Figure Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity Market Share by Region (2016-2021)
Figure Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity Market Share by Region (2016-2021)
Figure 2017 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity Market Share by Region
Table Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production by Region (2016-2021)
Figure Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production (K Units) by Region (2016-2021)
Figure Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production Market Share by Region (2016-2021)
Figure 2017 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Production Market Share by Region
Table Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Revenue (Million USD) by Region (2016-2021)
Table Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Revenue Market Share by Region (2016-2021)
Figure Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Revenue Market Share by Region (2016-2021)
Table 2017 Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Revenue Market Share by Region
Figure Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity, Production (K Units) and Growth Rate (2016-2021)
Table Global Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity, Production (K Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
Table United States Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity, Production (K Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
Table EU Automotive Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Capacity, Production (K

Direct Purchase
Your perfect start with Stats And Research


Want to customize this report?

This report can be customized according to your requirements. Our analysts and industry experts will work directly with you to understand your requirements and provide you with customized data in a short amount of time.

We offer $1000 worth of FREE customization at the time of purchase.
RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo

You may also be lnterested in..

Stats And Research Copyright © 2021 .